نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی ترویجی

نویسنده

دکتری تاریخ ایران باستان دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

شکل ­گیری روابط دیپلماتیک ایران و روم در آغاز قرن یکم پیش از میلاد، در نتیجه توسعه­ طلبی روم به سمت شرق و اشکانیان به سمت غرب، منجر به رویارویی ایران و روم شد. از دید این جستار، کشمکش ایران و روم در طول قرن یکم قبل از میلاد، محصول واقعی عملکرد حاکمان دست­ نشانده ایرانی­‌تبار قفقاز و آناتولی است که نقش آنها در بسیاری از وقایع، با تکیه بر تحلیل روایات مورخان یونانی و رومی پیرامون حوادث این دوره مشهود است. بنابراین، هدف از تحقیق حاضر، آشکار ساختن جایگاه حاکمان محلی آناتولی و قفقاز، به­‌خصوص آرتاکسیان ارمنستان در شکل­‌گیری روابط ایران و روم در آغاز قرن یکم قبل از میلاد، از طریق توصیف و تحلیل داده‌­های منابع است که در سایه دستاورد تحقیق فوق، بسیاری از مسائل ایران و روم در ارتباط مستقیم با حوادث این مناطق و حاکمان آن تا حدودی توجیه تاریخی پیدا می­‌کند. چرایی و چگونگی نقش حاکمان ایرانی‌تبار آناتولی و قفقاز در شکل‌­گیری روابط ایران و روم پرسشی است که در اینجا مطرح می­‌شود و فرضیه تحقیق نیز بر اثرگذار بودن این پادشاهی­‌ها در نتیجه رقابت بین آنها و حمایت­‌هایی که از سوی ایران و روم می­‌شدند، تأکید دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

دیاکوف، ولادیمیر، 1379، تاریخ جهان باستان: رُم، ا. کاژدان، ترجمه: صادق انصاری، علی همدانی و محمدباقر مؤمنی، تهران: نشر اندیشه.
شیپمان، کلاوس، 1384، مبانی تاریخ پارتیان، ترجمه: هوشنگ صادقی، تهران: فرزان روز.
ولسکی، یوزف، 1383، شاهنشاهی اشکانی، ترجمه: مرتضی ثاقب‌فر، تهران: ققنوس.
زرین‌کوب، عبدالحسین، 1388، تاریخ مردم ایران: ایران قبل از اسلام، تهران: امیرکبیر.
 Appian, 1958, Appian‟s Roman History, Translated by Horace White, Loeb Classical Library Cambridge, MA.
Assar, G. R. F., 2006a, “A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 165-91 BC”, Electrum 11: 87-158.
Assar, G. R. F., 2006b, “A Revised Parthian Chronology of the Period 91-55 BC”, Parthica 8: 55-104.
Astin, A. E., 1989 ‚Roman Government and Politics. 200-134 B.C.‛ in Cambridge Ancient History (C.A.H.), VIII, Cambridge: 163-196.
Badian, E., 1958, Foreign Clientelae, Oxford.
Badian, E., 1959, “Sulla‘s Cilician Command”, Athenaeum 37: 279-303.
Badian, E., 1964, Studies in Greek and Roman History, Oxford.
Bedoukian, P., 1981, “Artaxiad Dynasty of Armenia”, in Selected Numismatic Studies of Paul Z. Bedoukian, Los Angeles.
Bin Seray, H.M., 1996, ‘Spasinou Charax and Its Commercial Relations with the East through the Arabian Gulf’, ARAM 8: 15–23.
Bellinger, A.R., 1942, “Hyspaosines of Charax” Yale Classical Studies 8: 53-67.
Bivar, A.D.H., 1983, ‘The Political History of Iran under the Arsacids’, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3 (1): The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 21-99.
Brennan, T. C., 1992, “Sulla‘s Career in the 90s: Some Reconsiderations” , Chiron 22: 103-158.
Broughton, T. R. S., 1968, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, 2 Vols., Michigan.
Cagniart, P.A., 1991, “L. Cornelius Sulla in the 90s: a Reassessment”, Latomus 50: 295-303.
Cantor, N.F., 2004, Antiquity: From the Birth of Sumerian Civilization to the Fall of the Roman Empire, Harper Perennial.
College, M.A.R., 1967, The Parthians, London: Thames & Hudson.
Cornell, T., 1995, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c1000–264 BC), London: Routledge.
Debevoise, N.C., 1938, A Political History of Parthia, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dio Cassius, 1955, Roman History, Translated by Earnest Cavary, Harvard University.
Diodorus of Sicily/Siculus 1967, Library of History, Translated by C. H. Oldfather, London, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.
Dmitriev, S., 2011, The Greek Slogan of Freedom and Early Roman Politics in Greece, Oxford.
Dobbins, K. W., 1974 “Mithridates II and his Successors: A Study of the Parthian Crisis 90-70 BC.”, Antichthon 8: 63-79. 
Drijvers, J.W., 1998, ‘Strabo on Parthia and the Parthians’, in J. Wiesehöfer (ed.), Das Partherreich und Ceine Zeugnisse. The Arsacid Empire: Sources and Documentation, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag: 279-295.
 Eckstein, A. M., 1987, Senate and General. Individual Decision Making and Roman Foreign Relations. 264-194 B.C., Berkeley.
Eckstein, A.M., 2008, Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230-170 BC, Blackwell Publishing.
Errington, R. M., 1989 “Rome against Philip and Antiochus”, CAH VIII: 244-289.
Fowler, R., 2005, 'Most Fortunate Roots: Tradition and Legitimacy in Parthian Royal Ideology', in O. Hekster and R. Fowler (eds.), Imaginary Kings. Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag: 125-157.
 Frank K. Strk, 2011, The First Meeting of the Roman and Parthian Empires―Geopolitical Context and Consequences, Thesis Submitted For the Degree of Master of Arts in Classics School of History and Classics University of Tasmania.
 Frye, R. N., 1983, The History of Ancient Iran, München: C. H. Beak.
Geyer, F., 1937, “Tigranes”, No. 1, RE 6A: 970-978.
Goldsworthy, A. K., 2000, The Punic Wars. London: Cassell.
Goldsworthy, A. K., 2003, In the Name of Rome, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
Grant, M., 1978, The History of Rome, Publisher: Pearson College Div.
Gruen, E. S., 1984, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, Berkeley.
Hansman, J., 1967, ‘Charax and the Karkheh’ Iranica Antiqua, 7: 21–58.
Hammond, N. G. L. & Walbank, F. W., 1988, A History of Macedonia, Vol. 3, Oxford.
Isidore of Charax, 1976, Parthian Stations, Trans. W. H. Schoff, Chicago.
Justin,1890, History Of World, Extracted From Trougus Pomoeius, Translated by John Selby Watson.
Keaveney, A., 1981, “Roman Treaties with Parthia Circa 95―Circa 64 BC”, AJP 102: 195-212.
Keaveney, A., 1995, “Sulla‘s Cilician Command: The Evidence of Apollinaris Sidonius”, Historia 44: 29-36.
Lang, D.M., 1983, “Iran, Armenia and Georgia”, The Cambridge History of Iran, 3(1): 505-536.
Lerner, J.D., 1999, The Impact of Seleucid Decline on the Eastern Iranian Plateau, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Livy, 1919-59, History of Rome, LCL, Translated by B.O. Foster et al, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Magie, D., 1950, Roman Rule in Asia Minor to the End of the Third Century after Christ. Vol. 1: Text. Princeton, NJ.
McDowell, R., 1935, The Coins From Seleucia on the Tigris (University of Michigan Studies. Humanistic Series, 37), Ann Arbor.
Mitchell, S., 1993, Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor, Oxford.
Musti, D., 1984, ‘Syria and the East’, in F.W. Walbank, A.E. Astin, M.W. Fredriksen, and R.M. Ogilvie (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History. Vol. 7: The Hellenistic World, (2nd ed) Cambridge University Press: 175-220.
Newell, E.T., 1925, Mithradates of Parthia and Hyspaosines of Characene: A Numismatic Palimpsest (Numismatic Notes and Monographs, No. 26), New York.
Nodel­man, S.A., 1960, “A Preliminary History of Characene,” Berytus 13: 83-121.
Pliny, 1947, Natural History, Translated by John Bostock and H. Rackam, London, Loeb Classical Library.
Plutarch, 1919, Plutarch Lives, ed and tr. B. Perrin, Loeb Classical Library.
Polybius, 1922, The History Polybius ,Translated by W. R. Paton, Harvard University.
Potter, D.S., 1991, ‘Inscription on the Bronze Herakles from Mesene, Vologesus IV’s War with Rome and the Datation of Tacitus’ Annals’ ZPE 88: 277–290.
Potter, D.S., 2009, Rome in the Ancient World: From Romulus to Justinian. London: Thames & Hudson.
Potts, D.T., 1990, The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity. Vol. II: Fom Alexander to the Coming of Islam, Oxford.
Sachs, A. J. and Hunger, H., 1996, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia, Vol. 3: Diaries from 164 BC to 61 BC, Vienna.
Sellwood, D.G., 1976, “The Drachms of the Parthian “Dark Age”, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 2–25.
Shayegan, M.R., 2011, Arsacids and Sasanians: Political Ideology in Post-Hellenistic and Late Antique Persia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sherwin-White A. N., 1976, “Rome, Pamphylia and Cilicia”, JRS 66: 1-14.
Sherwin-White A. N., 1977, “Ariobarzanes, Mithridates and Sulla”, CQ 27, No. 1: 175-183.
Sherwin-White A. N., 1984, Roman Foreign Policy in the East: 168 BC to AD 1, Norman.
Simonetta, A. M., 2006, "Overstrikes, Mules, Modified Dies and Retouched Coins in the Arsacid coinage : A Discussion of Their Significance " Parthica 8: 41-54.
Sumner, G. V., 1978, “Sulla‘s Career in the 90s”, Athenaeum 56: 395-396.
Sullivan, R. D., 1990, Near Eastern Royalty and Rome, 100-30 BC, Toronto.
Strabo, 1854-1857, Strabo's Geography in Three Volumes as Translated by H.C. Hamilton, ed. H.G. Bohn.
Syme, 1995, Anatolica: Studies in Strabo, ed. by A. Birley, Oxford.
Tarn, W.W., 1938, The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Velleius Paterculus, 1924, Compendium of Roman History, Trans. F. W. Shipley; Loeb Classical Library 152 Harvard University Press.
Wenke, R. J., 1981, “Elymeans, Parthians and the Evolution of Empires in Southwestern Iran”, Journal of the American Oriental Society 101: 303-315
Wolski, J., 1956-57, ‘The Decay of the Iranian Empire of the Seleucids and the Chronology of the Parthian Beginnings’, Berytus 12: 35-52.